Descendants of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Fula migrant settlers from the Fouta Djalon region of Guinea, they live primarily in the northeast and the western area of Sierra Leone. In December 2005, UN peacekeeping forces pulled out of Sierra Leone. Strasser was later ousted by his army colleague and second-in-command Julius Maada Bio, for failing to commit to a quick transfer to civilian rule. But in May, when nearly all Nigerian forces had left and UN forces were trying to disarm the RUF in eastern Sierra Leone, Sankoh's forces clashed with the UN troops, and some 500 peacekeepers were taken hostage as the peace accord effectively collapsed. Sir Albert was accused of corruption and of a policy of affirmative action in favour of his own Mende ethnic group. There is high unemployment, particularly among the youth and ex-combatants. The Republic of Sierra Leone is composed of five regions: the Northern Province, North West Province, Southern Province, the Eastern Province, and the Western Area. The vast majority of Limba support the All People's Congress (APC) political party. Despite Makeni being ethnically diverse just as the other major cities in the country, the Temne people account for the largest ethnic group in the city and the main language is the Krio language.  Students at primary schools are usually 6 to 12 years old, and in secondary schools 13 to 18. This ended its 16years of running the Colony. Together these peoples formed the Krio ethnicity and an English-based creole language, (Krio), which is the lingua franca and de facto national language used among many of the ethnicities in the country. Graphic maps of the area around 8 33' 36" N, 13 31' 30" W. There are many color schemes to choose from. This condition often drives women into poverty and isolation.. In September 2014 there were many Districts with travel restrictions including Kailahun, Kenema, Bombali, Tonkolili, and Port Loko because of Ebola. , The country takes its name from the Lion Mountains near Freetown. Sandbars, generally separated by silting lagoons, sometimes form the actual coast. A Continental Perspective", Ebola virus epidemic in Sierra Leone#cite note-Ebola WHO 22 oct-1, "The economic impact of Ebola may kill more people than the virus itself", Sierra Leone Demographic and Health Survey 2008, "At Long Last, Recruitment Begins at Sierra Leone Broadcasting Corporation | ICFJ International Center for Journalists", "Sierra Leone Broadcasting Corporation (SLBC) Maiden Report 2010-2011", "Sierra Leone Editorial criticizing president prompts multiple proceedings", "Sierra Leone editors arrested after publishing article comparing pres", "Editor arrested for comparing Sierra Leone president to a rat | Media", "Sierra Leone editors arrested after publishing article comparing president to a rat", "Sierra Leone intensifies media crackdown News", "Sierra Leone: In Sierra Leone, Journalists Held On Libel, Sedition Charges", "Press Freedoms and Human Rights:2005 Year End Press Freedom Brief", "Media use, and attitudes towards media in Sierra Leone:A comprehensive baseline study", "Cricinfo article Uganda and Sierra Leone Win Through", "Visa Issues End Sierra Leone's World Cup Dream", Key Development Forecasts for Sierra Leone, Sierra Leone 2002 Summary Trade Statistics, Hurrarc Human Rights Respect Awareness Raising Campaigners, Environmental Justice Foundation's report on pirate fishing in Sierra Leone, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights, Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Commonwealth Secretariat Member Countries, Comparison of American and British English, List of countries by English-speaking population, List of countries where English is an official language, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sierra_Leone&oldid=1134240923, English-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations, Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, States and territories established in 1961, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, Articles with dead external links from June 2014, Articles with dead external links from July 2021, Articles with dead external links from August 2021, Articles with dead external links from June 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from October 2022, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles containing Portuguese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2022, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2022, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2022, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles lacking reliable references from October 2022, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2013, Articles with self-published sources from December 2017, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, This page was last edited on 17 January 2023, at 18:00. These problems became so severe that the SLPP boycotted the 1973 general election; as a result the APC won 84 of the 85 elected seats.. 2004 saw a population of four million, nine hundred and seventy-six thousand eight hundred and seventy-one (4,976,871) and in the 2015 census Sierra Leone recorded a total population of seven million and ninety-two thousand, one hundred and thirteen (7,092,113), the last census before the latest mid-term population and housing census which indicated a total of eight hundred and forty-three thousand two hundred and fifty-four (843,254) residential buildings, whilst for non-residential a total of seven thousand five hundred and three ( 7,503). 267,266. On 16 January 1996, after about four years in power, Strasser was arrested in a palace coup staged by his fellow NPRC soldiers led by Brigadier Bio at the Defence Headquarters in Freetown. Its members represented both British who hoped to inspire local entrepreneurs and those with interest in the Macauley & Babington Company, which held the (British) monopoly on Sierra Leone trade.  Agriculture accounted for 58 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2007. 208,795 (2015); Goderich - York Urban Area: pop. As designated by the Sierra Leone Constitution, the vice-president is to become the new president of Sierra Leone upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. The currency is the leone. In 2018, Sierra Leone held a general election.  Owing to the astute politics of Milton Margai, the educated Protectorate elites were able to join forces with the paramount chiefs in the face of Krio intransigence. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions 2023 worldatlas.com. Later, Margai used the same skills to win over opposition leaders and moderate Krio elements to achieve independence from the UK.. Tony Blair, the Prime Minister of Britain at the time of the British intervention, is regarded as a hero by the people of Sierra Leone, many of whom are keen for more British involvement.. The central bank is the Bank of Sierra Leone. The provinces of Sierra Leone are divided into 14 districts. In the map below, youll be able to see the borders of all 16 districts in Sierra Leone. A small community of Orthodox Christians resides in the capital Freetown.. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began working in Sierra Leone in the 1970's, focusing on Lassa fever. The majority of newspapers are privately run and are often critical of the government.  As of 2013[update] Sierra Leone is ranked 61st (up two slots from 63rd in 2012) out of 179 countries on Reporters Without Borders' Press Freedom Index. Prior to conducting the election, Sierra Leoneans and international stakeholders were involved in a major debate on whether the nation should focus on trying to end the long running civil war, or to conduct elections and hence returning governance back to a civilian-led administration with a multi-party system of parliament that would provide the foundation for long-lasting peace and national prosperity. , After the contribution made by the Bangladesh UN Peacekeeping Force in the Sierra Leone Civil War under the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone, the government of Ahmad Tejan Kabbah declared Bengali an honorary official language in December 2002. Another prominent figure in Sierra Leone history is Bai Sherbro (c.18301912). By the 1990s, economic activity was declining and economic infrastructure had become seriously degraded. Siaka Stevens retired from politics in November 1985 after being in power for eighteen years. Sir Albert resorted to increasingly authoritarian actions in response to protests and enacted several laws against the opposition All People's Congress, whilst attempting to establish a one-party state. The Fula are virtually all Muslims at over 99%. Poyo bars are areas of lively informal debate about politics, football, basketball, entertainment and other issues. Female. , In Sierra Leone, normally, men are automatically positioned as household heads; and their status does not change if their marital status changes over time. The situation in the country deteriorated to such an extent that British troops were deployed in Operation Palliser, originally simply to evacuate foreign nationals. Reference Location: Bonthe District, Sierra Leone. The ratio of men and women in Bo District, Sierra Leone.  A 2012 study was done on the correlation between Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI), and burning biomass fuels in the home. Sheikh Muhammad Taha Jalloh is the president of the Sierra Leone Supreme Islamic Council. In August 2007, Sierra Leone held presidential and parliamentary elections. On 19 October 1998, 24 soldiers in the Sierra Leone armyincluding Gborie, Brigadier Hassan Karim Conteh, Colonel Samuel Francis Koroma, Major Kula Samba and Colonel Abdul Karim Sesaywere executed by firing squad after they were convicted in a court martial in Freetown, some for orchestrating the 1997 coup that overthrew President Kabbah and others for failure to reverse the mutiny..  Each chiefdom has ruling families that were recognised at that time; the Tribal Authority, made up of local notables, elects the paramount chief from the ruling families. The 1978 constitution made the APC the only legal political party in Sierra Leone. The Krios are virtually all Christians at about 99%.  The United Council of Imams, is an influential Islamic religious body in Sierra Leone, that is made up of all imams of mosques throughout Sierra Leone. Based on 2015 estimates of the population of Sierra Leone, 77% of the population are Muslims, 22% are Christians, and 1% practise African traditional religion. President Momoh appointed his former military colleague and key ally, Major General Mohamed Tarawalie to succeed him as the head of the Sierra Leone Military. English is the official language used in schools and government administration. Bo is closely behind Kenema with 10.0%, whilst Western Rural, Kono and Western Area Urban with 8.8%, 8.2%, and 8.1% are third, fourth and fifth respectively. The Mandinka are predominantly found in the east and the northern part of the country. The country has 2,090 known species of higher plants, 147 mammals, 626 birds, 67 reptiles, 35 amphibians, and 99 fish species. Area figures are derived from geospatial data. Margai's Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP) won a plurality of parliamentary seats and he was re-elected Prime Minister. The Oku people are the descendants of liberated muslim Yorubas from Southwest Nigeria, who were released from slave ships and resettled in Sierra Leone as Liberated Africans or came as settlers in the mid-19th century. The incident brought religious tension in Sierra Leone, in a country known for its high level of religious tolerance, as many Sierra Leonean Muslims at home and abroad called for Ajisafe to be deported back to his home country of Nigeria. The NPRC's efforts proved to be nearly ineffective as the ousted Momoh administration in repelling the RUF rebels.  The defeat of the Temne and Mende in the Hut Tax war ended mass resistance to the Protectorate and colonial government, but intermittent rioting and labour unrest continued throughout the colonial period. The country has three universities: Fourah Bay College, founded in 1827 (the oldest university in West Africa), University of Makeni (established initially in September 2005 as The Fatima Institute, the college was granted university status in August 2009, and assumed the name University of Makeni, or UNIMAK), and Njala University, primarily located in Bo District. It is the fifth-largest city in Sierra Leone, and the Tenme people make up the largest ethnic group in the city.  He based the government on the rule of law and the separation of powers, with multiparty political institutions and fairly viable representative structures.  In the 1970s and early 1980s, economic growth rate slowed because of a decline in the mining sector and increasing corruption among government officials. For example, some of the Liberated Africans were forced to change their name to a more Western sounding one. In addition to being Sierra Leones capital and largest city, Freetown is a major port city and utilizes one of the worlds largest natural deep water harbors. The city of Bo, also called Bo Town, is the economic hub of the Southern Province and Sierra Leones second-largest city. , Excessive police brutality is also a frequent problem. Female. Its now home to a diverse group of inhabitants and is also where the Bai Bureh Warriors hail from, one of Sierra Leones oldest and most famous football clubs. Economic Community of West African States, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, some areas around the capital of Sierra Leone, First Responder Coalition of Sierra Leone, Agency for Rural Community Transformation, female genital mutilation in Sierra Leone, "Sierra Leone 2015 Population and Housing Census National Analytical Report", "GINI index (World Bank estimate) Sierra Leone", "National Electoral Commission Press Release", "Sierra Leone unveils new geographical map", 2020 Report on International Religious Freedom: Sierra Leone, "Inter-religious cooperation can be vital asset for rebuilding Sierra Leone UN expert", "The Establishment of the Sierra Leone Protectorate and the Insurrection of 1898", "Transition without Rupture: Sierra Leone's Transfer Election of 1996", "The British Experience in Africa and Oman", "Pedro da intra did not name Sierra Leone: An Exploration into available evidence", Staying Power: The History of Black People in Britain, Reconstructing the Life Histories of Liberated Africans: Sierra Leone in the Early Nineteenth Century, https://www.persee.fr/doc/cea_0008-0055_1991_num_31_121_2116, https://www.academia.edu/40720522/A_Precis_of_Sources_relating_to_genealogical_research_on_the_Sierra_Leone_Krio_people, "Reconstructing the Life Histories of Enslaved Africans: Sierra Leone, c. 180819", The International Journal of African Historical Studies, "House of Commons International Development Memoranda", "Sierra Leone Web Sierra Leonean Heroes Achievement of Independence", "Sierra Leone was ripe for Independence: Exclusive interview with Reginald Boltman", "Sierra Leone: Viewpoint Celebrating a New Nation! Black migrants elected different levels of political representatives, 'tithingmen', who represented each dozen settlers and 'hundreders' who represented larger amounts. To maintain the support of the military, Stevens retained the popular John Amadu Bangura as head of the Sierra Leone Armed Forces. Another 24 were discharged, and another 23 ran away. Media in Sierra Leone began with the introduction of the first printing press in Africa at the start of the 19th century. The Kuranko are largely Muslim majority. The Western Area is divided into two districts.  The Sierra Leone Resettlement Scheme was proposed by entomologist Henry Smeathman and drew interest from humanitarians like Granville Sharp, who saw it as a means of showing the pro-slavery lobby that black people could contribute towards the running of the new colony of Sierra Leone. South Surah, Al Zahra, Block 1, Street 5, Building 22/614, 2023 Copyright - All rights Reserved - Embassy of Sierra Leone, Qatar Education Above All to Support 45,000 Out of School Children in Sierra Leone, Sierra Leones Foreign Minister discusses bilateral and multilateral issues with Qatar Foreign Minister, presents Sierra Leone candidature bid for UNSC non-permanent category for 2024-2025, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, Sierra Leone Investment and Export Promoting Agency. They predominate in the large towns, most notably Karina, in Bombali District in the north; Kabala and Falaba in Koinadugu District in the north; and Yengema, Kono District in the east of the country. , According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Sierra Leone had a population of 8,700 refugees and asylum seekers at the end of 2007. Lansana placed Stevens under house arrest in Freetown and insisted that the determination of the Prime Minister should await the election of the tribal representatives to the House. Sierra Leone's capital Freetown is located in the Western Area of the country and its makes up the Western Area Urban District . Waterloo is a major urban transport hub and lies on the .  Sir Francis Drake reached Sierra Leone on 22 July 1580 as the last stop of his voyage along the west coast of Africa.  Part of the reason for this was due to the import duties and taxes and the lack of quality control. On 29 April 1992, a group of young soldiers in the Sierra Leone Army, led by seven army officersLieutenant Sahr Sandy, Captain Valentine Strasser, Lieutenant Solomon "SAJ" Musa, Captain Komba Mondeh, Lieutenant Tom Nyuma, Captain Julius Maada Bio and Captain Komba Kambostaged a military coup that sent president Momoh into exile in Guinea, and the young soldiers established the National Provisional Ruling Council (NPRC), with 25-year-old Captain Valentine Strasser as its chairman and Head of State of the country. Bureh was allowed to return in 1905, when he resumed his chieftaincy of Kasseh. Stevens reorganised the country's oil refinery, the government-owned Cape Sierra Hotel, and a cement factory. The president appoints and heads a cabinet of ministers, which must be approved by the Parliament. The reasons for the significant differences between the 2015 and 2021 figures are unclear. However, Karefa-Smart failed to receive broad support within the SLPP in his attempt to oust Albert Margai as both the leader of the SLPP and Prime Minister. The overwhelming majority of Sierra Leonean Muslims, are adherent to the Sunni tradition of Islam in practice. The park is home to elephants, hippos, buffaloes, and many chimpanzees it's also listed as a protected area by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP).  The country had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 2.76/10, ranking it 154th globally out of 172 countries.. In 1977, a nationwide student demonstration against the government disrupted Sierra Leone politics. Originally named Serra Leoa (Portuguese for 'lioness mountains') by Portuguese explorer Pedro de Sintra in 1462, the modern name is derived from the Italian spelling, which was introduced by Venetian explorer Alvise Cadamosto and subsequently copied by other European mapmakers. The Njala University is the second largest university in Sierra Leone located in Bo city. , Sierra Leone is located on the southwest coast of West Africa, lying mostly between latitudes 7 and 10N (a small area is south of 7), and longitudes 10 and 14W. Freetown is governed by the city council that is elected directly and serves for a four-year term and is headed by the Mayor. Sierra Leone is officially a secular state. Four provinces are further divided into 14 districts; the Western Area is divided into two districts. Because of their trading, the Fulas are found in nearly all parts of the country.  Stevens also reduced ethnic polarisation in government by incorporating members of various ethnic groups into his all-dominant APC government. "Female Genital Cutting: Current Practices and Beliefs in Western Africa." In 2009, the Sierra Leone Under-19 team finished second in the African Under-19 Championship in Zambia, thus qualifying for the Under-19 World Cup qualifying tournament with nine other teams. One of the most popular tourist destinations in Sierra Leone is located in this province: Outamba-Kilimi National Park. Freetown is Sierra Leone's political, economic, cultural, financial, and educational center. , The British interacted mostly with the Krios in Freetown, who did most of the trading with the indigenous peoples of the interior. In 1799 some of the settlers revolted.  It is located near the Seli River and Freetown and was estimated to produce about 50 megawatts of electricity. Kabbah's presidency marked the dawn of a new Sierra Leone, which included the end of the civil war in 2002, a focus on fostering national unity and reconciliation, trust in government, peace and stability, the improvement in relations with many countries, and the refounding of the Sierra Leone Armed Forces with special assistance and training led by the Government of the United Kingdom. The Western Area Urban District exclusively comprises the entire city of Freetown, the national capital, and its divided into the . The British later captured Nyagua, and he was also exiled to the Gold Coast. Turay, went into hiding and fled the country to Guinea, fearing for his life. One of the biggest minority ethnic groups are the Fula at around 3.8% of the population. agreement & 5 others, Sierra Leone admits to low supply of fuel, Sierra Leone: Audit reveals corrupt practice in defence, agriculture, education, police, Sacked Sierra Leone VP takes case to ECOWAS Court, Sierra Leone detains top football officials, Sierra Leone electoral commission to start boundary delimitation, Sierra Leone Parliament challenges Disaster Bill, Sierra Leone Court Martial, defence rejects president, SANUSI COVID-19 indices update (09/12/20). In October 2000, a UN-approved certification system for exporting diamonds from the country was put in place and led to a dramatic increase in legal exports. The topography of the province is mostly hilly woodlands, and the land supports a range of endangered species.  To ensure that the Energy Africa goal is met, Sierra Leone has agreed to remove its import duties and Value Added Tax (VAT) on certified solar products. , Population density varies greatly within Sierra Leone. Other towns in Falaba District include Falaba, Sikunia, Krubola, Musaia Ganya and Mansadu Falaba District is divided into thirteen chiefdoms. Pressures to end colonialism had as much to do with Britains weakened position following World War II as it did with the pan-African demands for autonomy. Football is the most popular sport in this city, and its home to the Kamboi Eagles professional football club. Sierra Leone as a country lies between latitude and longitude 12.2 degrees west and 8.5 degrees north respectively. , The Sierra Leone Company, controlled by London investors, refused to allow the settlers to take freehold of the land. In Freetown, the Guma Valley Water Company remains in charge of the water supply. Stevens is generally criticised for dictatorial methods and government corruption, but on a positive note, he kept the country stable and from collapsing into civil war. If you are interested in the answer to the question "How many men and women are there in Koinadugu District, Sierra Leone?" It is the second largest city in Sierra Leone and the biggest city in the southern province serving as the administrative center and capital of Bo district. , Sierra Leone suffers from epidemic outbreaks of diseases, including yellow fever, cholera, Ebola, lassa fever and meningitis. In the south, the plains comprise a rolling wooded country where isolated hills rise abruptly to more than 1,000 feet (300 metres). In addition, many continued to practise Methodism in Freetown. Sherbro also sent fighters to assist Bai Bureh in the fight against the British. The country can be divided into four distinct physical regions: the coastal swamp, the Sierra Leone Peninsula, the interior plains, and the interior plateau and mountain region. The Sierra Leone Police under Bambay Kamara's leadership was accused of physical violence, arrest and intimidation against critics of President Momoh's government. , The Environmental Justice Foundation has documented how the number of illegal fishing vessels in Sierra Leone's waters has multiplied in recent years. It borders the country of Guinea as well as three other provinces in Sierra Leone. Be the first to get the latest news, music and videos trending in Sierra Leone. Of the refugees remaining in Sierra Leone, nearly all were Liberian.. The Inter-Religious Council of Sierra Leone estimated that 77% of Sierra Leone's population are Muslims, 21% are Christians, and 2% are followers of traditional African religion. Under the pressure of several coup attempts, real or perceived, Stevens' rule grew more and more authoritarian, and his relationship with some of his ardent supporters deteriorated. The president is the highest and most influential position within the government of Sierra Leone. Bio is the leader of the Sierra Leone People's Party, the current ruling party in Sierra Leone. Surveys of the religious make up of Sierra Leone vary widely, though Muslims make up the majority of the population. , Sierra Leone is home to four terrestrial ecoregions: Guinean montane forests, Western Guinean lowland forests, Guinean forest-savanna mosaic, and Guinean mangroves. The city was established by Lieutenant John Clarkson, African American ex-slaves and free people known as the Nova Scotian Settlers on March 11th, 1792, making Freetown the oldest capital created by African Americans. Agricultural activities are the major contributors to the economy in this province; farming, fishing, and raising livestock are some of the most common ways people earn money here. Men continue to be the lesser population with a total of three million seven hundred and twenty-seven thousand, seven hundred and forty-seven (3,727,747), comprising 49.4% of the total population. , Sierra Leone is a constitutional republic with a unicameral parliament and a directly elected president serving a five-year term with a maximum of two terms. Two other commercial TV operators (ABC and AIT) closed after they were not profitable. Sierra Leone's highways are linked to Conakry, Guinea, and Monrovia, Liberia. The park is home to elephants, hippos, buffaloes, and many chimpanzees its also listed as a protected area by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP). The judicial power of Sierra Leone is vested in the judiciary, headed by the Chief Justice of Sierra Leone and comprising the Supreme Court of Sierra Leone, which is the highest court in the country, meaning that its rulings, therefore, cannot be appealed against. The Eastern Province is located on the eastern side of Sierra Leone and borders Guinea and Liberia as well as two other Sierra Leone provinces. In the 1860s, the country became a journalist hub for Africa, with professionals travelling to the country from across the continent.  This move led to another major demonstration against the government in many parts of the country, but it was also put down by the army and Stevens' SSD force. However, the main suspect, Major S.I.M. Manga Sewa was born in Falaba, Solima chiefdom, in the Northern Province of British Sierra Leone to Yalunka parents. 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